Before the turn of the century, the Samnites made another attempt to remain independent against Rome and persuaded the Estruscans, Umbrians and Gauls (all three are inhabitants of neighboring Italian territories) to do the same and join them.

Third Samnite War

This move alarmed the Romans at first. But when the Romans saw the lack of coordination among their 4 enemies, they devised an effective war strategy and faced them all at once.

The Romans, using their increased Roman legions, discipline and military leadership, won most of the battles (with the the Umbrians and Gauls defeated), yet the Samnites fought until their total defeat in 291 BC.

The following year, peace was made on more favorable terms for the Samnites than Rome (Rome probably trying to end the war series completely).

Third War

The result of the war were the following: the Campanian cities, through which Rome had been involved in the Samnite wars, became allies of Rome, with varying degrees of independence. Roman military colonies were settled in Campania as well as on the eastern outskirts of Samnium. After the war thoroughly cooled down, Rome dominated all of the Italian peninsula except for the Greek cities in Italy’s extreme south and the Po valley.